Employment Law

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GENERAL 

Definition of an Employee 

Employee Rights 

HOURS OF WORK 

Rest Periods 

OVERTIME 

Amount of Overtime Pay 

DEDUCTIONS 

HOLIDAY AND VACATION PAY 

Holiday Pay

Vacation Pay

SICK DAYS

MATERNITY AND PARENTAL LEAVE 

PAYMENT OF WAGES 

Minimum Wage 

Reduced Wages 

Time of Payment 

UNSAFE WORKPLACES 

TERMINATION, TRANSFER, AND DEMOTION 

Just Cause 

Termination Notice and Pay 

Transfers and Demotions 

Employee’s Notice to an Employer 

EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS 

DISCRIMINATION 

EMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 

WORKERS' COMPENSATION 

JOB TRAINING 

REFERRAL NUMBERS AND WEBSITES 

 

GENERAL

 

 

1.  Definition of an Employee  

A person who does work for a wage or salary.

 

Not everyone who works for money is considered an ‘employee’. For example, if an electrician makes a contract to wire a new house, they are generally not considered an employee of the general contractor of the house, but an ‘independent contractor’. This means that the employment laws discussed in this pamphlet may not apply to them.  

 

2.  Employee Rights 

Federal and provincial legislation gives employees certain rights. These rights may change depending on the employer and the type of employment. For example, under the Alberta Employment Standards Code,construction workers have certain regulations that apply specifically to them, such as vacation pay at a higher rate than the norm and no requirement that notice be given prior to your job ending or you leaving your job. 

 

NOTE:This pamphlet deals strictly with non-unionized employees. Unionized employees fall under different legislation and are subject to the terms of their collective agreement and the grievance process therein. Unionized employees should contact their unions for more information on employment law. 

 

In Alberta, employees generally have the right to:

Be paid a minimum wage ($9.95 per hour in Alberta as of November 2013, unless you are serving liquor, in which case the minimum wage is $9.05). NOTE: One cannot agree to work for less than minimum wage.  

  1. Be paid some form of overtime pay when working overtime hours.

  2. Know when they have to work.

  3. Be paid at least monthly.

  4. Receive vacation pay.

  5. Receive holiday pay.

  6. Receive their full pay.

  7. Take maternity or parental time off.

  8. Be treated fairly.

  9. Receive notice before being terminated.

  10. Be paid when injured on the job.

 

 

If an agreement is made between the employer and the employee that there will be more rights than those listed in the Code, then the employee has the right to enforce those rights. This is generally done through an employment contract. It is important to speak up about a problem if one arises or the court may take your silence to mean that you agreed to the problem. For example, if you are paid less than you should be and you do not speak up, then the court may take this to mean that you agreed to accept less. 

  

It is best to make sure that all agreements are in writing. If your employment is for a fixed period of more than one year, you must ensure that your contract is in writing and signed by both you and your employer in order for it to be enforceable. 

 

 

HOURS OF WORK

 

An employee cannot be required to work more than 12 hours in any 24-hour period unless there is an emergency or an accident. (There are some exceptions for certain industries.)

 

Any changes to an employee’s normal shift must be posted 24 hours before the change is to take place. 

 

1.  Rest Periods 

An employer must allow an employee at least 8 hours of rest between shifts. In each 7-day period, the employer must give one full day of rest, though an employee may agree to work up to 24 days in a row. At the end of this 24-day period, the employer must provide at least four consecutive days of rest.

 

An employee must be given at least 30 minutes of rest (paid or unpaid) during each shift that is more than five hours long. There are exceptions to this rule. If there is an emergency situation or it is not reasonable for the employee to take a break, the employee might not receive a rest period.  

 

 

OVERTIME

 

Generally, an employee must be paid overtime when he/she works more than 8 hours in a day or more than 44 hours in a single week. The employee will always receive the greater total of overtime hours. For example, if an employee works five 10-hour days (i.e., 50 hours), this could be calculated as either: 1) 6 hours of overtime above the 44 hour week; OR 2) 2 hours above the standard 8 hours each day, or 10 hours of overtime. Because the employee always receives whichever total is greater, the employee in this case will be paid for 10 hours of overtime. 

 

An employee can work a compressed work week, which means they work fewer days but more hours in each day. A compressed work week must be scheduled in advance at a maximum of 44 hours per week. With a compressed work week, an employee will NOT be paid overtime when he/she works more than 8 hours in a day.  

 

1.  Amount of Overtime Pay  

Employees must be paid at least one-and-a-half times their regular wage for overtime pay (“time and a half”, or one’s hourly wage multiplied by 1.5). 

 

An employee may agree to take time off instead of being paid overtime. Time off in place of overtime pay must be taken within 3 months of the end of the pay period in which it was earned. The time off must be taken at a time that the employee would otherwise have worked. If the employee does not take the time off within 3 months, the employer must pay them for the overtime worked. If an employee worked overtime hours and quit or was fired before taking this time off, the employer must pay them overtime.

  

NOTE: Some employees are exempt from rules dealing with hours of work, rest periods, days of rest, and overtime pay (such as farm employees, certain types of salespeople, and managers/supervisors).  

 


DEDUCTIONS

 

An employer must take off money from each pay cheque for Income Tax, Employment Insurance, and the Canada Pension Plan. Additional money can only be deducted from an employee’s earnings under certain conditions, such as written permission from the employee or a Court order.  

 

NOTE: An employer cannot deduct money for faulty workmanship or cash shortages/loss of property IF someone other than the employee has access to the cash or property.

 

 

HOLIDAY AND VACATION PAY

 

 

 

1.  Holiday Pay 

Holiday pay is paid to employees who work on general holidays, except for federal workers. These general holidays are:

 

New Year’s Day (January 1st)

Family Day (Third Monday in February)

Good Friday (Friday before Easter)

Victoria Day (Monday before or on May 25th)

Canada Day (July 1st)

Labour Day (First Monday in September)

Thanksgiving Day (Second Monday in October)

Remembrance Day (November 11th)

Christmas Day (December 25th)

 

To be entitled to holiday pay, the holiday must fall on a day when you would otherwise be working. Further, you must have worked for the employer for at least 30 days/shifts in the last 12 months, work all scheduled shifts the week before the holiday and the shift after the holiday (unless the employer consented to you not working), and you must not have refused to work if asked. 

 

If a general holiday falls during your annual vacation, your employer must extend your vacation by 1 day with pay or give you another paid day off before your next annual vacation. 

 

If you work on a general holiday that falls on a regular workday, then your employer owes you your regular pay plus time and a half; your employer can also give you a full day’s pay plus an extra day off instead of the extra pay. Even if you are not required to work on a general holiday that falls on a regular workday, you are still entitled to your regular wages for the day.

 

If you work on a general holiday that falls on a day that would not typically be a workday (a weekend for example), then you are entitled to time and a half.  

 

 

2.  Vacation Pay

 

If you have worked for an employer for at least one year, then you are entitled to a minimum of 2 week of paid vacation. If you have worked for 5 or more years, you are entitled to a minimum of 3 weeks of paid vacation. 

 

If you do not take your vacation days, then you are still entitled to vacation pay or 4% of your regular wages; this amount increases to 6% after 5 years of service. Vacation pay can be paid out at any time during the year, but it must be paid by the first payday after the start of your scheduled vacation. 

 

If an employee quits, is fired, or is laid off, the employer must pay vacation pay in the last cheque, no later than ten days after the last day of employment.  

 

 

SICK DAYS

 

There is no law that requires employers to provide pay for sick days. However, if the employee’s contract states that they are entitled to sick pay, then the employer will be required to provide it. 

 

 

MATERNITY AND PARENTAL LEAVE

 

A pregnant employee who has worked for the same employer, full or part-time for 12 months in a row, may take time off without pay for a pregnancy. She has a right to 15 weeks’ unpaid maternity leave (which can start 12 weeks before the due date) and 37 weeks of parental leave.  Also, she must be reinstated to her old job or one similar to it when she returns to work.  

 

A pregnant employee must give her employer written notice at least 6 weeks before the day she wants to start maternity leave or parental leave. If the employer asks, she must provide a medical certificate. If she does not give 6 weeks’ notice, she may give two weeks’ notice with a medical certificate and a due date.  

 

An employer may also give an employee written notice to take her maternity leave if the pregnancy will interfere with her duties, provided it is at least 12 weeks prior to the expected delivery date. Her employer does not have to pay her for time off unless she has signed an agreement that she will get paid while she is on maternity leave. 

 

 

An employee may be able to collect Employment Insurance (EI) while she is not working during maternity leave. She can collect a total of 15 weeks of EI payments. She must have worked at least 600 hours in the last year to collect, and show that her weekly earnings have decreased by more than 40%.

 

Parents are entitled to 37 weeks of parental leave; this may be taken by the mother or the father or shared if the employer is notified. Adoptive parents may also take 37 weeks of parental leave. Parental leave must be taken within 52 weeks of the birth or adoption of the child. EI benefits for parental leave are the same as for maternity leave (55% of regular weekly earnings to a maximum of $501 per week); however, they are payable for a longer period (35 weeks versus a maximum period of 15 weeks during maternity leave).

 

 

PAYMENT OF WAGES

 

1.  Minimum Wage

Most employees have the right to a minimum wage. In Alberta, an employee has the right to a minimum wage of $9.75 per hour (as of Sept 1, 2012). 

 

Generally, an employee must be paid for at least 3 hours every time they report for a shift, whether they are sent home or not.  

 

2.  Reduced Wages

Notice is required before an employee’s earnings can be reduced, and must be given before the start of the pay period in which the reduction is going to take place. If the employer does not give notice, the employee is entitled to their regular wage until proper notice is given. 

 

3.  Time of Payment

An employee usually has the right to wages, overtime pay, and entitlements within 10 days after the end of each pay period.  

 

If an employee is paid weekly, he or she may have to wait up to 2½ weeks before the first cheque is granted. The employee should then get cheques every week.

 

A statement of earnings must be given to the employee at the end of each pay period, showing hours worked, pay earned, holiday and vacation pay, and deductions.  

 

 

UNSAFE WORKPLACES

 

An employee is not required to work if they are in imminent danger, or if their working puts someone else in imminent danger. An employee must tell their employer about unsafe conditions as soon as possible. If the employer fires an employee because they refuse to do dangerous work, then that employee is entitled to voice a complaint to Workplace Health and Safety. It is important that an employee tell the absolute truth in the complaint. A false complaint may result in a fine or jail time.  

 

 

TERMINATION, TRANSFER, AND DEMOTION

 

 

 

1.  Just Cause

An employer can terminate an employee for ‘just cause’ without having to give notice or termination pay. There are a number of reasons that qualify as ‘just cause’. The most common reasons include: 

  • Falsified qualifications. 

  • Engaging in sexual harassment. 

  • Not following health and safety requirements. 

  • Stealing or being dishonest. 

  • Not obeying the rules at work. 

 

2.  Termination Notice and Pay 

An employer can fire or lay off an employee without just cause, so long as the employer gives notice of the termination or payment instead of notice. An employee is not entitled to notice or pay if they have been employed for less than three months.

 

An employer must give an employee written notice if he/she is being laid off. The length of time an employee has worked for an employer determines the amount of notice (or pay instead of notice) they should receive. 3 months to 2 years requires a one-week notice, and 2 to 4 years requires a two-week notice. These are minimum guidelines, and an employee who has worked for the same employer for many years may be entitled to more notice or pay. As always, it may be a good idea to speak to a lawyer before signing any sort of termination agreement.  

 

3.  Transfers and Demotions 

Generally, an employer cannot demote or transfer an employee without reasonable notice or the consent of the employee. If an employer does this, the employee may be able to treat this as a dismissal and ask for termination pay. 

 

NOTE: Rules dealing with notice and termination pay do NOT apply to construction workers, seasonal workers, or those employed for a fixed period of time.  

 

4.  Employee Notice to an Employer 

If an employee has worked for more than 3 months and less than 2 years, they are required to give at least one week’s notice. Employees who have worked for more than 2 years must provide 2 weeks’ notice. There are some situations where the employee does NOT have to give notice, such as when her/his personal safety is at risk or he/she has been working there for less than 3 months.  

 

 

EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS

 

Employment Standards provides telephone counselling services for anyone who has a question concerning employment. Recorded messages and an automated fax-back system are available 24 hours a day, while counsellors are available during regular business hours.  

 

When employees are unable to resolve matters with their employer, Employment Standards staff can investigate the matter on receipt of a written complaint. Employees who want to file a complaint with Employment Standards must file within six months of the date on which their employment ended. 

 


DISCRIMINATION

 

If an employee has been discriminated against, they may make a complaint to the Alberta Human Rights Commission. The Commission only considers discrimination on the basis of:

 

a. gender (including pregnancy and sexual harassment);

b. religious beliefs;

c. race;

d. ancestry;

e. colour;

f. physical or mental disability;

g. age;

h. family status;

i. marital status;

j. source of income;

k. sexual orientation; and

l. place of origin.

 

The Commission can order an employer to stop unfair treatment. An employee must submit a written complaint within 12 months of the incident. The commission will attempt to mediate the dispute first. If this fails, a hearing may be scheduled. 

 

 

EMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

 

Generally, a person must have worked between 420 and 700 hours in the last year to qualify for EI (though this will vary based on the unemployment rate in the province). If a person quits without a good reason or is fired for just cause, they may not qualify for EI. One must apply for EI benefits within four weeks from the last day of employment to avoid unnecessary delays or loss of benefits. It usually takes 28 days from the date a person files their claim before getting their first cheque. A person will still have to look for a job while collecting benefits. It is a good idea to write down the names of all the places where one has applied for a job.

 

If you wish to apply for EI, then you must collect a record of employment from your employer. If they refuse to give you one, contact EI. 

 

 

WORKERS’ COMPENSATION

 

If injured on the job, one should first seek first aid treatment and make sure to tell their employer he/she is hurt. If the employee cannot work, they may apply to the WCB for benefits. If the claim is accepted, the employee may be paid up to 90% of their net (after deductions) income.

 

Generally, it is very difficult for an employee to sue an employer if injured on the job. However, an employee may be able to sue another employee who caused the injury.  

 

The WCB offers a claims counsellor to help people who have problems with their claim. They can help employees prepare a claim or attend hearings.  

 

If an employee disagrees with a decision of the WCB, they may appeal the decision. The employee has the right to have a representative at the appeal hearing, which can be a friend, a lawyer, an appeals advisor, or someone from Student Legal Services.

 

If someone is appealing, WCB must be notified. The employee and their representative have the right to view their file in order to prepare for the appeal. A free appeal service is provided by WCB’s appeals advisory service. There are two levels of appeal. First, someone can appeal to the Claims Services Review Committee. If unhappy with this decision, an employee can further appeal to the Appeals Commission.  

 

 

JOB TRAINING

 

There are programs in Alberta that may be able to help with job training. Alberta Works is a program of the Alberta Government that brings together Employment and Training Services, Income Support, Health Benefits, and Child Support Services. The program’s goals are to help unemployed people find and keep jobs, help low-income Albertans cover their basic costs of living, and help employers meet their need for skilled workers.

 

REFERRAL NUMBERS AND WEBSITES

 

Employment Standards (outside Edmonton dial 310-0000 first) [780] 427-3731

http://employment.alberta.ca/SFW/1224.html

 

Workplace Health And Safety 1-866-415-8690

http://www.employment.alberta.ca/SFW/53.html

 

Employment Insurance .1-800-206-7218

http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/sc/ei/index.shtml

 

Workers’ Compensation Board [780] 498-3999

www.wcb.ab.ca

 

Alberta Human Rights Commission. . . . (toll free: 1-866-922-9221) [780] 427-7661

www.albertahumanrights.ab.ca

 

Alberta Works 1-866-644-5135

http://employment.alberta.ca/FCH/3171.html

 

Legal Assistance

 

Dial-A-Law (Legal Information on Tape)

Toll-free 1-800-332-1091

 

Edmonton Centre for Equal Justice……………………………………………[780] 702-1725

www.ecej.ca

 

Lawyer Referral Service……………………………………………………….1-800-661-1095

 

Edmonton Legal Aid…………………………………………………………….[780] 427-7575

www.legalaid.ab.ca

 

Calgary Legal Guidance………………………………………………………..[403] 234-9266

www.clg.ab.ca

 

Student Legal Services of Edmonton (Switchboard)………………………..[780] 492-2226

Civil Law…………………………………………………………………[780] 492-8244

www.slsedmonton.com

 

Calgary Student Legal Assistance…………………………………………….[403] 220-6637

http://www.sla.ucalgary.ca/

 

Native Counselling Services of Alberta……………………………………….[780] 451-4002